Publications & Reports

Please find below a list of BCFS reports and publications.


  • Fedurek, P., P. Tkaczynski, C. Asiimwe, C. Hobaiter, L. Samuni, A. E. Lowe, A. G. Dijrian, K. Zuberbuehler, R. M. Wittig and C. Crockford (2020). "Maternal cannibalism in two populations of wild chimpanzees." Primates 61(2): 181-187.
  • Goetschi, F., J. McClung, A. Baumeyer and K. Zuberbuehler (2020). "Chimpanzee immigration: flexible social strategies lead to successful integration in a captive group." Journal of Zoo and Aquarium Research 8(1): 10-17.
  • Ischer, G., K. Zuberbuhler and P. Fedurek (2020). "The relationship between food calling and agonistic behaviour in wild chimpanzees." Behavioural Processes 178.
  • Kavanagh, E., S. Street, T. Bergman, M. Blaszczyk, M. Briseno-Jaramillo, L. M. Bolt, M. Brown, C. Chen-Kraus, Z. Clay, C. Coye, A. Estrada, C. Fichtel, M. Gamba, C. Giacoma, K. Graham, S. Green, C. Grueter, S. Gupta, M. Gustison, L. Hagberg, D. Hedwig, D. Inglis, K. Jack, P. Kappeler, G. King-Bailey, B. Kubenova, A. Lemassons, Z. Machanda, A. MacIntosh, B. Majolo, S. Marshall, S. Mercier, J. Micheletta, H. Notman, K. Ouattara, J. Ostner, L. Peckre, M. Petersdorf, F. Quintero, G. Ramos Fernandez, M. Robbins, R. Salmi, V. A. Schoof, O. Schulke, S. Semple, J. Silk, J. Roberto Sosa-Lopez, K. B. Strier, V. Torti, D. Valente, E. van de Waal, C. Wilke, C. Young, A. Zanoli, K. Zuberbuhler, R. Barton, A. Lameira and K. Slocombe (2020). "Dominance Style and Vocal Communication in Primates." Folia Primatologica 91(3): 262-263.
  • Lowe, A. E., C. Hobaiter, C. Asiimwe, K. Zuberbuehler and N. E. Newton-Fisher (2020). "Intra-community infanticide in wild, eastern chimpanzees: a 24-year review." Primates 61(1): 69-82.
  • Pebsworth, P. A., T. Gruber, J. D. Miller, K. Zuberbuehler and S. L. Young (2020). "Selecting between iron-rich and clay-rich soils: a geophagy field experiment with black-and-white colobus monkeys in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda." Primates.
  • Tkaczynski, P. J., V. Behringer, C. Y. Ackermann, P. Fedurek, B. Fruth, C. Girard-Buttoz, C. Hobaiter, S. M. Lee, T. Lohrich, A. Preis, L. Samuni, Z. Zommers, K. Zuberbuhler, T. Deschner, R. M. Wittig, G. Hohmann and C. Crockford (2020). "Patterns of urinary cortisol levels during ontogeny appear population specific rather than species specific in wild chimpanzees and bonobos." Journal of human evolution 147: 102869-102869.
  • Zuberbuhler, K. (2020). "Syntax and compositionality in animal communication." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 375(1789).


  • Reynolds V, Pascual‐Garrido A, Lloyd AW, Lyons P, Hobaiter C. Possible mineral contributions to the diet and health of wild chimpanzees in three East African forests. Am J Primatol. 2019;e22978.
  • Zuberbuhler, K. (2019). Evolutionary roads to syntax. Animal Behaviour, 151, 259-265. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2019.03.006
  • Kuehl, H. S., Boesch, C., Kulik, L., Haas, F., Arandjelovic, M., Dieguez, P., . . . Kalan, A. K. (2019). Human impact erodes chimpanzee behavioral diversity. Science, 363(6434), 1453-+. doi: 10.1126/science.aau4532
  • Surbeck, M., C. Boesch, C. Crockford, M. E. Thompson, T. Furuichi, B. Fruth, G. Hohmann, S. Ishizuka, Z. Machanda, M. N. Muller, A. Pusey, T. Sakamaki, N. Tokuyama, K. Walker, R. Wrangham, E. Wroblewski, K. Zuberbuhler, L. Vigilant and K. Langergraber (2019). "Males with a mother living in their group have higher paternity success in bonobos but not chimpanzees." Current Biology 29(10): R354-R355.

  • Suzuki, T. N. and K. Zuberbuhler (2019). "Animal syntax." Current Biology 29(14): R669-R671.

  • Dezecache, G., C. Crockford and K. Zuberbuhler (2019). "The development of communication in alarm contexts in wild chimpanzees." Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 73(8).

  • Behringer, V., J. M. G. Stevens, R. M. Wittig, C. Crockford, K. Zuberbuehler, F. H. Leendertz and T. Deschner (2019). "Elevated neopterin levels in wild, healthy chimpanzees indicate constant investment in unspecific immune system." Bmc Zoology 4.

  • Fedurek, P., C. Neumann, Y. Bouquet, S. Mercier, M. Magris, F. Quintero and K. Zuberbuhler (2019). "Behavioural patterns of vocal greeting production in four primate species." Royal Society Open Science 6(4). Grund, C., C. Neumann, K. Zuberbuhler and T. Gruber (2019). "Necessity creates opportunities for chimpanzee tool use." Behavioral Ecology 30(4): 1136-1144.

  • Kuehl, H. S., C. Boesch, L. Kulik, F. Haas, M. Arandjelovic, P. Dieguez, G. Bocksberger, M. B. McElreath, A. Agbor, S. Angedakin, E. A. Ayimisin, E. Bailey, D. Barubiyo, M. Bessone, G. Brazzola, R. Chancellor, H. Cohen, C. Coupland, E. Danquah, T. Deschner, D. Dowd, A. Dunn, V. E. Egbe, H. Eshuis, A. Goedmakers, A.-C. Granjon, J. Head, D. Hedwig, V. Hermans, I. Imong, K. J. Jeffery, S. Jones, J. Junker, P. Kadam, M. Kambere, M. Kambi, I. Kienast, D. Kujirakwinja, K. E. Langergraber, J. Lapuente, B. Larson, K. Lee, V. Leinert, M. Llana, G. Maretti, S. Marrocoli, R. Martin, T. J. Mbi, A. C. Meier, B. Morgan, D. Morgan, F. Mulindahabi, M. Murai, E. Neil, P. Niyigaba, L. J. Ormsby, R. Orume, L. Pacheco, A. Piel, J. Preece, S. Regnaut, A. Rundus, C. Sanz, J. van Schijndel, V. Sommer, F. Stewart, N. Tagg, E. Vendras, V. Vergnes, A. Welsh, E. G. Wessling, J. Willie, R. M. Wittig, Y. G. Yuh, K. Yurkiw, K. Zuberbuhler and A. K. Kalan (2019). "Human impact erodes chimpanzee behavioral diversity." Science 363(6434): 1453-+.


  • Zuberbuhler, K. (2018). Combinatorial capacities in primates. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 21, 161-169. doi: 10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.015
  • Townsend, S. W., Engesser, S., Stoll, S., Zuberbuhler, K., & Bickel, B. (2018). Compositionality in animals and humans. Plos Biology, 16(8). doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2006425
  • Sonnweber, R., Araya-Ajoy, Y. G., Behringer, V., Deschner, T., Tkaczynski, P., Fedurek, P., . . . Crockford, C. (2018). Circadian Rhythms of Urinary Cortisol Levels Vary Between Individuals in Wild Male Chimpanzees: A Reaction Norm Approach. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2018.00085
  • Ramos-Fernandez, G., King, A. J., Beehner, J. C., Bergman, T. J., Crofoot, M. C., Di Fiore, A., . . . Boyer, D. (2018). Quantifying uncertainty due to fission-fusion dynamics as a component of social complexity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 285(1879). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0532
  • Lamon, N., Neumann, C., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2018). Development of object manipulation in wild chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 135, 121-130. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.11.003
  • Lamon, N., Neumann, C., Gier, J., Zuberbuhler, K., & Gruber, T. (2018). Wild chimpanzees select tool material based on efficiency and knowledge. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 285(1888). doi: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1715
  • Crockford, C., Gruber, T., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2018). Chimpanzee quiet hoo variants differ according to context. Royal Society Open Science, 5(5). doi: 10.1098/rsos.172066
  • Gomes, K. Zuberbuhler, R. M. Wittig and C. Crockford (2018). "Circadian Rhythms of Urinary Cortisol Levels Vary Between Individuals in Wild Male Chimpanzees: A Reaction Norm Approach." Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6.



  • Uwimbabazi, M., Eycott, A.E., Babweteera, F., Sande, E., Telford, R.J., and Vandvik, V. (2017) Avian guild assemblages in forest fragments around Budongo Forest Reserve, Western Uganda. Ostrich (88): 267 - 276
  • Babweteera, F. and Ssekuubwa, E. (2017): Predicting which tropical tree species are vulnerable to forest disturbances. African Journal of Ecology 55 (4): 592 - 599
  • Yersin, H., Asiimwe, C., Voordouw, M. J., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2017). Impact of Snare Injuries on Parasite Prevalence in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). International Journal of Primatology, 38(1), 21-30. doi:10.1007/s10764-016-9941-x
  • Surbeck, M., Girard-Buttoz, C., Boesch, C., Crockford, C., Fruth, B., Hohmann, G., . . . Mundry, R. (2017). Sex-specific association patterns in bonobos and chimpanzees reflect species differences in cooperation. Royal Society Open Science, 4(5). doi:10.1098/rsos.161081
  • Surbeck, M., Boesch, C., Girard-Buttoz, C., Crockford, C., Hohmann, G., & Wittig, R. M. (2017). Comparison of male conflict behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus), with specific regard to coalition and post-conflict behavior. American Journal of Primatology, 79(6). doi:10.1002/ajp.22641
  • Sievers, C., Gruber, T., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2017). The Informative Value of Recipient and Signaller Disagreement for the Study of Intentional Communication in Wild Chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica, 88(2), 117-117.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E., & Kaburu, S. S. K. (2017). Grooming decisions under structural despotism: the impact of social rank and bystanders among wild male chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour, 128, 153-164. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2017.04.012
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2017). Modeling Social Dominance: Elo-Ratings, Prior History, and the Intensity of Aggression. International Journal of Primatology, 38(3), 427-447. doi:10.1007/s10764-017-9952-2
  • McLennan, M. R., & Ganzhorn, J. U. (2017). Nutritional Characteristics of Wild and Cultivated Foods for Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Agricultural Landscapes. International Journal of Primatology, 38(2), 122-150. doi:10.1007/s10764-016-9940-y
  • Lamon, N., Neumann, C., Gruber, T., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2017). Kin-based cultural transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees. Science Advances, 3(4). doi:10.1126/sciadv.1602750
  • Holden, E., Brand, C., Grund, C., Samuni, L., Zuberbuhler, K., & Hobaiter, C. (2017). The Structure and Function of Female Chimpanzee Pant-Hoots. Folia Primatologica, 88(2), 120-121.
  • Hobaiter, C., Soldati, A., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2017). Do Chimpanzee Signal Combinations Provide Refinement or Redundancy in Meaning? Folia Primatologica, 88(2), 153-153.
  • Hobaiter, C., Samuni, L., Mullins, C., Akankwasa, W. J., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2017). Variation in hunting behaviour in neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Budongo forest, Uganda. Plos One, 12(6). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0178065
  • Hobaiter, C., Byrne, R. W., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2017). Wild chimpanzees' use of single and combined vocal and gestural signals. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 71(6). doi:10.1007/s00265-017-2325-1
  • Fedurek, P., Zuberbuhler, K., & Semple, S. (2017). Trade-offs in the production of animal vocal sequences: insights from the structure of wild chimpanzee pant hoots. Frontiers in Zoology, 14. doi:10.1186/s12983-017-0235-8
  • Dezecache, G., Zuberbuhler, K., Davila-Ross, M., & Dahl, C. D. (2017). Skin temperature changes in wild chimpanzees upon hearing vocalizations of conspecifics. Royal Society Open Science, 4(1). doi:10.1098/rsos.160816
  • Dezecache, G., Zuberbuhler, K., Davila-Ross, M., & Dahl, C. D. (2017). The Evolution of Crying: Distress Calls and Infants' Needs in Wild Chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica, 88(2), 120-120.
  • Crunchant, A. S., Egerer, M., Loos, A., Burghardt, T., Zuberbuhler, K., Corogenes, K., . . . Kuhl, H. S. (2017). Automated face detection for occurrence and occupancy estimation in chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 79(3). doi:10.1002/ajp.22627
  • Ackermann, C. Y., Neumann, C., Crockford, C., Deschner, T., Wittig, R. M., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2017). Variation in Strength of Juvenile-Mother Bonds and Oxytocin in Wild Juvenile Chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica, 88(2), 176-176.


  • Zuberbuhler, K. (2016). Social Concepts and Communication in Nonhuman Primates. In M. A. Bee & C. T. Miller (Eds.), Psychological Mechanisms in Animal Communication (Vol. 5, pp. 251-270).
  • Wittig, R. M., Crockford, C., Weltring, A., Langergraber, K. E., Deschner, T., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2016). Social support reduces stress hormone levels in wild chimpanzees across stressful events and everyday affiliations. Nature Communications, 7. doi:10.1038/ncomms13361
  • Mugisha, S., Zuberbuhler, K., & Hobaiter, C. (2016). First observation of Dorylus ant feeding in Budongo chimpanzees supports absence of stick-tool culture. Primates, 57(3), 389-394. doi:10.1007/s10329-016-0533-3
  • Madinda, N. F., Ehlers, B., Wertheim, J. O., Akoua-Koffi, C., Bergl, R. A., Boesch, C., . . . Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2016). Assessing Host-Virus Codivergence for Close Relatives of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Infecting African Great Apes. Journal of Virology, 90(19), 8531-8541. doi:10.1128/jvi.00247-16
  • Kuhl, H. S., Kalan, A. K., Arandjelovic, M., Aubert, F., D'Auvergne, L., Goedmakers, A., . . . Boesch, C. (2016). Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing. Scientific Reports, 6. doi:10.1038/srep22219
  • Gruber, T., Zuberbuhler, K., & Neumann, C. (2016). Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees. Elife, 5. doi:10.7554/eLife.16371
  • Fedurek, P., Zuberbuhler, K., & Dahl, C. D. (2016). Sequential information in a great ape utterance. Scientific Reports, 6. doi:10.1038/srep38226
  • Fallon, B. L., Neumann, C., Byrne, R. W., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2016). Female chimpanzees adjust copulation calls according to reproductive status and level of female competition. Animal Behaviour, 113, 87-92. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.12.028


  • Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). Linguistic capacity of non-human animals. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Cognitive Science, 6(3), 313-321. doi:10.1002/wcs.1338
  • Wittig, R. M., Crockford, C., Weltring, A., Deschner, T., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). Single Aggressive Interactions Increase Urinary Glucocorticoid Levels in Wild Male Chimpanzees. Plos One, 10(2). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118695
  • Reynolds, V., Lloyd, A. W., English, C. J., Lyons, P., Dodd, H., Hobaiter, C., . . . Fallon, B. (2015). Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees. Plos One, 10(7). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134075
  • Lamon, N., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). Object Manipulation and Tool Use in Wild Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Folia Primatologica, 86(4), 310-310.
  • Kaburu, S. S. K., & Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2015). Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Animal Behaviour, 99, 61-71. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.10.018
  • Hoppe, E., Pauly, M., Gillespie, T. R., Akoua-Koffi, C., Hohmann, G., Fruth, B., . . . Calvignac-Spencer, S. (2015). Multiple Cross-Species Transmission Events of Human Adenoviruses (HAdV) during Hominine Evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 32(8), 2072-2084. doi:10.1093/molbev/msv090
  • Gruber, T., Zuberbuhler, K., Clement, F., & van Schaik, C. (2015). Apes have culture but may not know that they do. Frontiers in Psychology, 6. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00091
  • Gruber, T. (2015). The Honey-Trap Experiment: Integrating 7 Years of Research from the Sonso Chimpanzee Community of Budongo Forest, Uganda with Theoretical Frameworks of Culture and Tool Use. Folia Primatologica, 86(4), 289-289.
  • Fedurek, P., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). The Function of Chimpanzee 'Waa' Barking in Agonistic Contexts. Folia Primatologica, 86(4), 279-280.
  • Fedurek, P., Slocombe, K. E., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). Chimpanzees communicate to two different audiences during aggressive interactions. Animal Behaviour, 110, 21-28. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.09.010
  • Fedurek, P., Slocombe, K. E., Hartel, J. A., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). Chimpanzee lip-smacking facilitates cooperative behaviour. Scientific Reports, 5. doi:10.1038/srep13460
  • Fallon, B., Neumann, C., Byrne, R., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). Flexible Use of Copulation Calls in Parous and Nulliparous Female Chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica, 86(4), 278-279.
  • Crockford, C., Wittig, R. M., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). An intentional vocalization draws others' attention: A playback experiment with wild chimpanzees. Animal Cognition, 18(3), 581-591. doi:10.1007/s10071-014-0827-z
  • Crockford, C., Wittig, R., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2015). How Intentional Are Chimpanzee Vocalizations? Folia Primatologica, 86(4), 264-265.
  • Crockford, C., Deschner, T., Ziegler, T., Zuberbuehler, K., & Wittig, R. (2015). Linking chimpanzee social bonds and cooperative behaviour during stressors and non-stressors with urinary oxytocin and glucocorticoid levels. Amino Acids, 47(8), 1636-1636.
  • Babiszewska, M., Schel, A. M., Wilke, C., & Slocombe, K. E. (2015). Social, Contextual, and Individual Factors Affecting the Occurrence and Acoustic Structure of Drumming Bouts in Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 156(1), 125-134. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22634


  • Uwimbabazi, M., & Eilu, G. (2014). Avian frugivore assemblages on Celtis gomphophylla, Baker, in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 52(1), 97-102. doi:10.1111/aje.12088
  • Brand, C., Eguma, R., Zuberbuehler, K., & Hobaiter, C. (2014). First report of prey capture from human laid snare-traps by wild chimpanzees. Primates, 55(3), 437-440. doi:10.1007/s10329-014-0419-1
  • Langergraber, K. E., Rowney, C., Schubert, G., Crockford, C., Hobaiter, C., Wittig, R., . . . Vigilant, L. (2014). How old are chimpanzee communities? Time to the most recent common ancestor of the Y-chromosome in highly patrilocal societies. Journal of Human Evolution, 69, 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2013.12.005
  • Lingling, S., Alele, P. O., Cannon, C. H., Sheil, D., & Surget-Groba, Y. (2014). Jaccard's similarity indices between bacterial and fungal communities in natural (N) and converted (C) sites of Mabira (Mb), Maramagambo (Mg), Budongo (Bd) and Kaniyo Pabidi (Kp). Figshare, 1. doi:
  • Bagine, R., Bwong, B. A., Gichuki, P., Gikungu, M., Imboma, T., Karanja, D., . . . Lampe, K. H. (2014). List of Animals from Kakamega Forest (Kenya) and Budongo Forest (Uganda) with Voucher Specimens in the Department of Zoology of the National Museums of Kenya. Bonn Zoological Bulletin Supplementum, 60, 98-126. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://BCI:BCI201400550713
  • Webber, A. D., & Hill, C. M. (2014). Using Participatory Risk Mapping (PRM) to Identify and Understand People's Perceptions of Crop Loss to Animals in Uganda. Plos One, 9(7). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0102912
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. (2014). Roving females and patient males: a new perspective on the mating strategies of chimpanzees. Biological Reviews, 89(2), 356-374. doi:10.1111/brv.12058
  • Wittig, R. M., Crockford, C., Langergraber, K. E., & Zuberbuehler, K. (2014). Triadic social interactions operate across time: a field experiment with wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B, 181(1779), 1-9. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://ZOOREC:ZOOR15007035101


  • Schel, A. M., Machanda, Z., Townsend, S. W., Zuberbuehler, K., & Slocombe, K. E. (2013). Chimpanzee food calls are directed at specific individuals. Animal Behaviour, 86(5), 955-965. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.08.013
  • Hsiao, S. S., Ross, C., Hill, C. M., & Wallace, G. E. (2013). Crop-raiding deterrents around Budongo Forest Reserve: an evaluation through farmer actions and perceptions. Oryx, 47(4), 569-577. doi:10.1017/s0030605312000853
  • Zommers, Z., Macdonald, D. W., Johnson, P. J., & Gillespie, T. R. (2013). Impact of human activities on chimpanzee ground use and parasitism (Pan troglodytes). Conservation Letters, 6(4), 264-273. doi:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00288.x
  • Hobaiter, C., & Byrne, R. W. (2013). Laterality in the gestural communication of wild chimpanzees. In W. C. McGrew, W. Schiefenhovel, & L. F. Marchant (Eds.), Evolution of Human Handedness (Vol. 1288, pp. 9-16).
  • Mielke, A., & Zuberbuehler, K. (2013). A method for automated individual, species and call type recognition in free-ranging animals. Animal Behaviour, 86(2), 475-482. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.04.017
  • Crockford, C., Wittig, R. M., Langergraber, K., Ziegler, T. E., Zuberbuehler, K., & Deschner, T. (2013). Urinary oxytocin and social bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B, 280(1755), 8pp.-8pp. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://ZOOREC:ZOOR14905017616
  • Gruber, T. (2013). Changes in Food Availability in Relation to Ape Cultural Behaviour: A Historical Biogeographic Approach. Folia Primatologica, 84(3-5), 281-281. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://WOS:000323807400079
  • Crockford, C., Wittig, R., & Zuberbuehler, K. (2013). Chimpanzees Distinguish Acoustically Similar Alert Hoos from Resting Hoos. Folia Primatologica, 84(3-5), 260-261. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://WOS:000323807400043
  • Murphy, D., Lea, S. E. G., & Zuberbuehler, K. (2013). Male blue monkey alarm calls encode predator type and distance. Animal Behaviour, 85(1), 119-125. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.10.015
  • Townsend, S. W., Zuberbuhler, K., & Deschner, T. (2013). Rank and copulation calling behaviour of seven adult females of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda. Figshare. doi:



  • Zommers, Z. A., Johnson, P. J., & Macdonald, D. W. (2012). Biofuels bonanza? Sugarcane production and poverty in villages surrounding Budongo Forest, Uganda. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 6(2), 177-195. doi:10.1080/17531055.2012.669569
  • Wuest, R. (2012). The brown-cheeked hornbill and the grey-cheeked hornbill in the Budongo area/Uganda. [Braun- und Grauwangen-Hornvoegel im Gebiet Budongo/Uganda.]. Gefiederte Welt, 136(5), 25-27. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://ZOOREC:ZOOR14807048622
  • McLennan, M. R., Hyeroba, D., Asiimwe, C., Reynolds, V., & Walls, J. (2012). Chimpanzees in mantraps: lethal crop protection and conservation in Uganda. Oryx, 46(4), 598-603. doi:10.1017/s0030605312000592
  • Wallace, G. E., & Hill, C. M. (2012). Crop Damage by Primates: Quantifying the Key Parameters of Crop-Raiding Events. Plos One, 7(10). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046636
  • Hill, C. M., & Wallace, G. E. (2012). Crop protection and conflict mitigation: reducing the costs of living alongside non-human primates. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21(10), 2569-2587. doi:10.1007/s10531-012-0318-y
  • Schel, A. M., & Zuberbuehler, K. (2012). Dawn chorusing in guereza colobus monkeys. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 66(3), 361-373. doi:10.1007/s00265-011-1282-3
  • Hedges, S., & McGrew, W. C. (2012). Ecological Aspects of Chimpanzee Insectivory in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Pan Africa News, 19(1), Unpaginated-Unpaginated. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://ZOOREC:ZOOR14810067768
  • Gruber, T., Potts, K. B., Krupenye, C., Byrne, M.-R., Mackworth-Young, C., McGrew, W. C., . . . Zuberbuehler, K. (2012). The Influence of Ecology on Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Cultural Behavior: A Case Study of Five Ugandan Chimpanzee Communities. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126(4), 446-457. doi:10.1037/a0028702
  • Hockings, K. J., & McLennan, M. R. (2012). List of cultivars recorded in diets of wild chimpanzees and part(s) eaten. Figshare. doi:
  • Schel, A. M., & Zuberbuehler, K. (2012). Predator and non-predator long-distance calls in Guereza colobus monkeys. Behavioural Processes, 91(1), 41-49. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2012.05.004
  • McLennan, M. R., & Plumptre, A. J. (2012). Protected apes, unprotected forest: composition, structure and diversity of riverine forest fragments and their conservation value in Uganda. Tropical Conservation Science, 5(1), 79-103. Retrieved from <Go to ISI>://WOS:000303355700008
  • Mungatana, E., & Ahimbisibwe, P. B. (2012). Qualitative impacts of Senna spectabilis on distribution of welfare: A household survey of dependent communities in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Natural Resources Forum, 36(3), 181-191. doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2012.01454.x
  • McLennan, M. R., & Hill, C. M. (2012). Troublesome neighbours: Changing attitudes towards chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a human-dominated landscape in Uganda. Journal for Nature Conservation, 20(4), 219-227. doi:10.1016/j.jnc.2012.03.002
  • Yingying Li, Jean-Bosco Ndjango, Gerald H. Learn, Miguel A. Ramirez, et al. Eastern Chimpanzees, but Not Bonobos, Represent a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Reservoir. Journal of Virology. 86, 19. 107776-10791. Paper (pdf), Supplement (pdf).
  • Matthew R. McLennan, David Hyeroba, Caroline Asiimwe, Vernon Reynolds and Janette Wallis (2012). Chimpanzees in mantraps: lethal crop protection and conservation in Uganda. Oryx, 46, pp 598603 doi:10.1017/S0030605312000592
  • Reynolds V, Lloyd A W, English C J (2012) Adaptation by Budongo Forest chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to loss of a primary source of dietary sodium. African Primates 7(2): 156-162.
  • Babweteera F, Shiel D, Reynolds V, Plumptre AJ, Zuberbühler, Hill CM, Webber A and Tweheyo M, 2012. Environmental and Anthropogenic Changes in and around Budongo Forest Reserve. In: Plumptre AJ (ed), The Ecological Impact of Long-Term Changes in Africa's Rift Valley. Nova Science Pub. Inc.
  • Laurance, W.F., Useche, D.C., Rendeiro, J., Babweteera, F., Reynolds, V., et al. (2012): Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas. Nature 489: 290 - 294
  • Gruber, T. & Zuberbühler, K. 2012. Evolutionary origins of the human cultural mind. Psychologist. 25, 5, p. 364-368.
  • Schel, A. M. & Zuberbühler, K. Mar-2012. Dawn chorusing in guereza colobus monkeys. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 66, 3, p. 361-373.
  • Crockford, C. , Wittig, R. M. , Mundry, R. & Zuberbühler, K. 24-Jan-2012. Wild chimpanzees inform ignorant group members of danger. Current Biology. 22, 2, p. 142-146.
  • Wilson, M. L. , Boesch, C. , Furuichi, T. , Gilby, I. C. , Hashimoto, C. , Hohmann, G. , Itoh, N. , Matsuzawa, T. , Mitani, J. , Mjungu, D. C. , Morgan, D. , Nakamura, M. , Pruetz, J. , Pusey, A. E. , Sanz, C. , Simmons, N. , White, F. , Watts, D. P. , Zuberbühler, K. & Wrangham, R. W. 2012. Rates of lethal aggression in chimpanzees depend on the number of adult males rather than measures of human disturbance. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 147, p. 305-305.


  • Community-specific evaluation of tool affordances in wild chimpanzees Gruber, T. , Muller, M. N. , Reynolds, V. , Wrangham, R. ∓ Zuberbühler, K. 2011. : Scientific Reports.1, p. -.7
  • The development of a greeting signal in wild chimpanzees Laporte, M. N. C. & Zuberbühler, K.Sep-2011 In : Developmental Science.14, 5, p. 1220-1234.
  • Copulation Calls in Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Convey Identity but Do Not Accurately Reflect Fertility Townsend, S. W. , Deschner, T. & Zuberbühler, K.Aug-2011In : International Journal of Primatology.32, 4, p. 914-923.
  • Living links to human language. Zuberbühler, K. , Arnold, K. & Slocombe, K. Mar-2011 In: Primate Communication and Human Language: Vocalisations, Gestures, Imitation and Deixis. Vilain, A., Schwartz, C., Abry, C. & Vauclair, J. (eds.). 1. John Benjaminsp. 13-38. (Advances in Interaction Studies ).
  • African Great Apes Are Naturally Infected with Polyomaviruses Closely Related to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Leendertz, F. H. , Scuda, N. , Cameron, K. N. , Kidega, T. , Zuberbühler, K. , Leendertz, S. A. J. , Couacy-Hymann, E. , Boesch, C. , Calvignac, S. & Ehlers, B. Jan-2011In : Journal of Virology.85, 2, p. 916-924.
  • A Physiological Mechanism to Promote Social Bonding between Non-Kin: Evidence from Wild Chimpanzees Crockford, C. , Wittig, R. , Ziegler, T. , Deschner, T. & Zuberbühler, K.2011In : Folia Primatologica.82, 6, p. 330-330.
  • Field experiments with nonhuman primates: A tutorial Zuberbühler, K. & Wittig, R. M.2011 In: Field andlaboratory methods in primatology. Curtis, D. J. & Setchell, J. M. (eds.). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press p. 207-224.
  • The Influence of Ecology on Chimpanzee Cultural Behaviour: A Case Study of 5 Ugandan Chimpanzee Communities Gruber, T. & Zuberbühler, K.2011In : Folia Primatologica.82, 6, p. 357-358.
  • The Primate Roots of Human Language Zuberbühler, K.2011 In : Folia Primatologica.82, 6, p. 323-323.


  • Gruber, T. , Clay, Z. ∓ Zuberbühler, K.Dec-2010 A comparison of bonobo and chimpanzee tool use: evidence for a female bias in the Pan lineage. In: Animal Behaviour.80, 6, p. 1023-1033.
  • Kaiser, M. , Lowa, A. , Ulrich, M. , Ellerbrok, H. , Goffe, A. S. , Blasse, A. , Zommers, Z. , Couacy-Hymann, E. , Babweteera, F. , Zuberbühler, K. , Metzger, S. , Geidel, S. , Boesch, C. , Gillespie, T. R. & Leendertz, F. H. Dec-2010 Wild Chimpanzees Infected with 5 Plasmodium Species. In: Emerging Infectious Diseases.16, 12, p. 1956-1959.
  • Slocombe, K. E. , Kaller, T. , Call, J. & Zuberbühler, K.14-Jul-2010. Chimpanzees Extract Social Information from Agonistic Screams. In : PLoS One. 5, 7
  • The central importance of information in studies of animal communication Seyfarth, R. M. , Cheney, D. L. , Bergman, T. , Fischer, J. , Zuberbühler, K. & Hammerschmidt, K. Jul-2010In : Animal Behaviour. 80, 1, p. 38.
  • Babweteera, F., and Brown, N. (2010): Spatial patterns of tree recruitment in East African tropical forests that have lost their vertebrate seed dispersers. Journal of tropical ecology 26: 193 – 203
  • Gruber, T., Reynolds, V. & Zuberbühler, K. 2010 The knows and unknowns of chimpanzee culture. Communicative & Integrative Biology 3, 1-3.
  • Laporte, M. N. C. & Zuberbuhler, K. 2010 Vocal greeting behaviour in wild chimpanzee females. Animal Behaviour 80, 467-473.
  • Schel, A. M., Candiotti, A. & Zuberbühler, K. 2010 Predator-deterring alarm call sequences in Guereza Colobus monkeys are meaningful to conspecifics. Animal Behaviour in press.
  • Slocombe, K. E., Kaller, T., Turman, L., Townsend, S., Papworth, S., Squibbs, P. & Zuberbühler, K. 2010 Production of food-associated calls in wild male chimpanzees is dependent on the composition of the audience. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 65.
  • Slocombe, K. E. & Zuberbühler, K. 2010 Vocal communication in chimpanzees. In The Mind of the Chimpanzee: Ecological and Empirical Perspectives (ed. E. V. Lonsdorf, S. Ross & T. Matsuzawa), pp. 192-207. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Thompson, M. E., Muller, M., Newton-Fisher, N., Gilby, I., Kahlenberg, S., Machanda, Z., Zuberbuhler, K. & Wrangham, R. 2010 Inter- and intra-population variation in aggression by adult male chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 101-101.
  • Tumusiime, D.M., Eilu, G., Tweheyo, M. and Babweteera, F. (2010): Wildlife Snaring in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 15:129–144
  • Zuberbühler, K. 2010 The evolution of surface and deep structure in primate communication. In Quo Vadis, behavioural biology. Past, present, and future of an evolving science (ed. R. Menzel, G. Tembrock & A. Wessel). Berlin: Acta Nova Leopoldina.


  • Bates L.A. and Byrne R.W. 2009. Sex differences in the movement patterns of free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): foraging and border checking. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 64: 247-255.
  • Babweteera, F. (2009): Cordia millenii: On the risk of local extinction? African Journal of Ecology 47: 367 - 373
  • Babweteera, F., & Brown, N. (2009). Can remnant frugivore species effectively disperse tree seeds in secondary tropical rain forests? Biodiversity and Conservation, 18(6), 1611-1627.
  • Byrne R.W., Noser R, Bates L A, and Jupp P E., 2009. How did they get here from there? Detecting changes of direction in terrestrial ranging. Anim. Behav., 77: 619-631. .
  • Ey, E., Rahn, C., Hammerschmidt, K., & Fischer, J. (2009). Wild Female Olive Baboons Adapt their Grunt Vocalizations to Environmental Conditions. Ethology, 115(5), 493-503.
  • Gruber, T., Muller, M. N., Strimling, P., Wrangham, R. W. & Zuberbühler, K. 2009 Wild chimpanzees rely on their cultural knowledge to solve an experimental honey acquisition task. Current Biology 19, 1806-1810.
  • Kosheleff, V. P., & Anderson, C. N. K. (2009). Temperature's Influence on the Activity Budget, Terrestriality, and Sun Exposure of Chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(2), 172-181.
  • O'Hara, S. J. (2009). The evolution of female sexuality: Are females responsible for relaxed male-male competition among chimpanzees in Budongo Forest? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 201-201.
  • Schel, A. M., Tranquilli, S., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2009). The Alarm Call System of Two Species of Black-and-White Colobus Monkeys (Colobus polykomos and Colobus guereza). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 123(2), 136-150.
  • Schel, A. M. & Zuberbühler, K. 2009 Responses to leopards are independent of experience in Guereza colobus monkeys. Behaviour 146, 1709-1737.
  • Slocombe, K. E., Townsend, S. W., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2009). Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) distinguish between different scream types: evidence from a playback study. Animal Cognition, 12(3), 441-449.
  • Townsend, S. W. & Zuberbühler, K. 2009 Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls. Communicative & Integrative Biology 2, 64-82.
  • Vernon Reynolds, Andrew W. Lloyd, Fred Babweteera & Christopher J. English (2009). Decaying Raphia farinifera Palm Trees Provide a Source of Sodium for Wild Chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. PLoS ONE.
  • Zuberbühler, K. 2009 Evolution of mammalian vocal signals: development of semiotic content and semantics of human language. In Handbook of Mammalian Vocalization, vol. 19 (ed. S. M. Brudzynski), pp. 505-514. Oxford: Academic Press,.
  • Zuberbühler, K. 2009 Survivor signals: The biology and psychology of animal alarm calling. In Advances in the Study of Behavior, vol. 40 (ed. M. Naguib, V. Janik, N. Clayton & K. Zuberbuhler), pp. 277-322. London: Academic Press.
  • Zuberbühler, K. & Kersken, V. 2009 Evolution of Communicative Flexibility: Complexity, Creativity, and Adaptability in Human and Animal Communication. American Journal of Human Biology 21, 412-413.
  • Zuberbühler, K., Ouattara, K., Bitty, A., Lemasson, A. & Noë, R. 2009 The primate roots of human language: Primate vocal behaviour and cognition in the wild. In Becoming eloquent: Advances in the emergence of language, human cognition, and modern cultures (ed. F. d’Errico & J.-M. Hombert), pp. 235–266. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


  • Babweteera, F., Reynolds, V., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2008). Conservation and research in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Masindi District, Western Uganda. Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Long-Term Research, 145-157.
  • Budongo Trail shows the way. (2008). Psychologist, 21(7), 571-571. Callan, H. (2008). The chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest: ecology, behaviour, and conservation. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 14(4), 909-911.
  • Olupot, W., & Plumptre, A. J. (2008). The use of research: how science in Uganda's National Parks has been applied. Science and Conservation in African Forests: The Benefits of Long-Term Research, 15-26.
  • Papworth, S., Bose, A. S., Barker, J., Schel, A. M., & Zuberbuhler, K. (2008). Male blue monkeys alarm call in response to danger experienced by others. Biology Letters, 4(5), 472-475.
  • Seraphin, S. B., Whitten, P. L., & Reynolds, V. (2008). The influence of age on fecal steroid hormone levels in male Budongo Forest Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). American Journal of Primatology, 70(7), 661-669.
  • Slater, K., Cameron, E., Turner, T., & du Toit, J. T. (2008). The influence of oestrous swellings on the grooming behaviour of chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Behaviour, 145, 1235-1246.
  • Amati S., Babweteera F. and Wittig R. 2008. Snare removal by a chimpanzee of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest (Uganda). Pan Africa News, 15 (1), 6-8.
  • Matthew R. McLennan 2008. Beleaguered Chimpanzees in the Agricultural District of Hoima, Western Uganda Primate Conservation 2008 (23): 45-54
  • S.B. Seraphin, P.L. Whitten and V. Reynolds 2008. The influence of age on fecal steroid hormone levels in male Budongo Forest chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Amer. J. Primatol, 70, 1-9.
  • Slater, K., Cameron, E., Turner, T. & Du Toit, J. T. 2008 The influence of oestrous swellings on the grooming behaviour of chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Behaviour 145, 1235-1246. [PDF]


  • Agea, J. G., Odur, S. O., Babwetera, F. & Kaboggoza, J. R. S. 2007. Abundance and utilization of Pyrenacantha sylvestris in Budongo Forest Reserve, western Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 45, 107-111.
  • Babweteera, F., Savill, P. & Brown, N. 2007. Balanites wilsoniana: Regeneration with and without elephants. Biological Conservation, 134, 40-47.
  • Emery Thompson M, Jones J H, Pusey A E, Brewer-Marsden S, Goodall J, Marsden D, Matsuzawa T, Nishida T, Reynolds V, Sugiyama Y, Wrangham R W (2007) Age and fertility patterns in wild chimpanzees provide insights into the evolution of menopause. Current Biology 17, 1-7.
  • Greenham, J. R., Grayer, R. J., Harborne, J. B. & Reynolds, V. 2007. Intra- and interspecific variations in vacuolar flavonoids among Ficus species from the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 35, 81-90. [Science Direct]
  • Langergraber, K. E., Siedel, H., Mitani, J. C., Wrangham, R. W., Reynolds, V., Hunt, K. & Vigilant, L. 2007. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans. PLoS ONE, 2, e973.
  • Nangendo, G., Skidmore, A. K. & van Oosten, H. 2007. Mapping East African tropical forests and woodlands - A comparison of classifiers. Isprs Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 61, 393-404.
  • O'Hara, S. J. 2007. Chimpanzee charging displays: a case of social rhetoric? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 180-180.
  • Parathian, H. E. (2007). The chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. Ecology, behaviour, and conservation. Journal of Biosocial Science, 39(4), 636-637.
  • Plumptre, A. J., Davenport, T. R. B., Behanyana, M., Kityo, R., Eilu, G., Ssegawa, P., Ewango, C., Meirte, D., Kahindo, C., Herremans, M., Peterhans, J. K., Pilgrim, J. D., Wilson, M., Languy, M. & Moyer, D. 2007. The biodiversity of the Albertine Rift. Biological Conservation, 134, 178-194.
  • Plumptre, A. J., Kujirakwinja, D., Treves, A., Owiunji, I. & Rainer, H. 2007. Transboundary conservation in the greater Virunga landscape: Its importance for landscape species. Biological Conservation, 134, 279-287.
  • Sande, E., Moreby, S., Dranzoa, C. & Wegge, P. 2007. Faecal analysis of Nahan's Francolin Francolinus nahani, Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 45, 105-108.
  • Slocombe, K. E. & Zuberbühler, K. 2007. Chimpanzees modify recruitment screams as a function of audience composition. P NATL ACAD SCI USA, 104, 17228-17233.
  • Thompson, M. E., Jones, J. H., Pusey, A. E., Brewer-Marsden, S., Goodall, J., Marsden, D., et al. (2007). Aging and fertility patterns in wild chimpanzees provide insights into the evolution of menopause. Current Biology, 17(24), 2150-2156.
  • Townsend, S. W., Slocombe, K. E., Emery Thompson, M. and Zuberbühler, K. (2007). Female-led infanticide in wild chimpanzees. Current Biology /17/, R355-356.
  • Tweheyo, M., & Babweteera, F. (2007). Production, seasonality and management of chimpanzee food trees in Budongo Forest, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 45(4), 535-544.
  • Webber, A. D., Hill, C. M., & Reynolds, V. (2007). Assessing the failure of a community-based human-wildlife conflict mitigation project in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Oryx, 41(2), 177-184.


  • Emery Thompson, M. E., Newton-Fisher, N. E. & Reynolds, V. 2006. Probable community transfer of parous adult female chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. International Journal of Primatology, 27, 1601-1617.
  • Emery Thompson, M. & Wrangham, R.W. (2006). Comparison of sex differences in gregariousness in fission-fusion species: reducing bias by standardizing for party size. In N. E. Newton-Fisher, H. Notman, V. Reynolds & J. Paterson (Eds.), /Primates of Western Uganda/ (Volume , pp. 209-226). Springer, New York.
  • Emery Thompson, M., Wrangham, R. W. & Reynolds, V. (2006). Urinary estrone conjugates and reproductive parameters in Kibale (Kanyawara) and Budongo (Sonso) chimpanzees. In N. E. Newton-Fisher, H. Notman, V. Reynolds & J. Paterson (Eds.), /Primates of Western Uganda/ (Volume , pp. 227-246). Springer, New York.
  • Nangendo, G., Ter Steege, H. & Bongers, F. 2006. Composition of woody species in a dynamic forest-woodland-savannah mosaic in Uganda: Implications for conservation and management. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15, 1467-1495.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. 2006. Female coalitions against male aggression in wild chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. International Journal of Primatology, 27, 1589-1599. [Online Journal]
  • O'Hara, S. J. & Lee, P. C. 2006. High frequency of postcoital penis cleaning in Budongo chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica, 77, 353-358.
  • Plumptre, A. J. & Cox, D. 2006. Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda. Primates, 47, 65-73.


  • Ballerio A. and Wagner T. 2005. Ecology and diversity of canopy associated Ceratocanthidae (Insecta): Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in an Afrotropical Rainforest. In: Huber B.A., Sinclair B.J. and Lampe K.H. (eds) African Biodiversity: Molecules, Organisms, Ecosystems (pp. 125-132). Springer.
  • Dale, S. & Slembe, B. 2005. Effects of selective logging (50 years ago) on habitat use and ranging behaviour of a forest understorey bird (red-tailed bristlebill, Bleda syndactyla) in Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 43, 114-122.
  • Emery Thompson, M. 2005. Reproductive endocrinology of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): Methodological considerations and the role of hormones in sex and conception. Amer. J. Primatol., 67:137-158.
  • Lukas, D., Reynolds, V., Boesch, C. & Vigilant, L. 2005. To what extent does living in a group mean living with kin? Molecular Ecology, 14, 2181-2196.
  • Muller, M. N. & Mitani, J. C. 2005. Conflict and cooperation in wild chimpanzees. In: Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol 35, pp. 275-331.
  • Notman, H. & Rendall, D. 2005. Contextual variation in chimpanzee pant hoots and its implications for referential communication. Animal Behaviour, 70, 177-190.
  • Reynolds, V. 2005. The chimpanzees of the Budongo forest - Ecology, behaviour, and conservation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Slocombe, K. E. & Newton-Fisher, N. E. 2005. Fruit sharing between wild adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): A socially significant event? American Journal of Primatology, 65, 385-391.
  • Slocombe, K. E. & Zuberbuhler, K. 2005. Agonistic screams in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) vary as a function of social role. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119, 67-77.
  • Slocombe K.E. and Zuberbuhler K. 2005. Functionally referential communication in a chimpanzee. Curr. Biol., 15:1779-1
  • Stuart, S. N., Archibald, G. W., Berry, R. J., Emmerich, S. D., Evans, D. M., Flenley, J. R., Gaston, K. J., Given, D. R., Gosler, A. G., Harris, P., Houghton, J., Lindquist, E. D., Mahan, D. C., Morecroft, M. D., Moyer, D. C., Murdiyarso, D., Musiti, B. W. W., Nicolson, C., Oteng-Yeboah, A., Plumptre, A. J., Prance, G., Ramachandra, V., Sale, J. B., Sheldon, J. K., Simiyu, S., Underhill, L. G., Vickery, J. & Whitten, T. 2005. Conservation theology for conservation biologists - A reply to David Orr. Conservation Biology, 19, 1689-1692.
  • Tweheyo, M., Hill, C. M. & Obua, J. 2005. Patterns of crop raiding by primates around the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Wildlife Biology, 11, 237-247.
  • Tweheyo, M. & Lye, K. A. 2005. Patterns of frugivory of the Budongo forest chimpanzees, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 43, 282-290.


  • Assersohn, C., Whiten, A., Kiwede, Z. T., Tinka, J. & Karamagi, J. 2004. Use of leaves to inspect ectoparasites in wild chimpanzees: a third cultural variant? Primates, 45, 255-258.
  • Chapman, C. A. & Chapman, L. J. 2004. Unfavorable successional pathways and the conservation value of logged tropical forest. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13, 2089-2105.
  • Eilu, G., Hafashimana, D. L. N. & Kasenene, J. M. 2004. Density and species diversity of trees in four tropical forests of the Albertine rift, western Uganda. Diversity and Distributions, 10, 303-312.
  • Eilu, G., Hafashimana, D. L. N. & Kasenene, J. M. 2004. Tree species distribution in forests of the Albertine Rift, western Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 42, 100-110.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. 2004. Hierarchy and social status in Budongo chimpanzees. Primates, 45, 81-87.
  • Newton-Fisher N. (2004) Data resolution and analysis technique in observational studies of ranging patterns. Folia primatologica 75(S1): 312-313 [Abstract]
  • Tweheyo, M., Lye, K. A. & Weladji, R. B. 2004. Chimpanzee diet and habitat selection in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management, 188, 267-278.


  • Arnold, K. & Whiten, A. 2003. Grooming interactions among the chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest, Uganda: Tests of five explanatory models. Behaviour, 140, 519-552.
  • Fairgrieve, C. & Muhumuza, G. 2003. Feeding ecology and dietary differences between blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni Matschie) groups in logged and unlogged forest, Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 41, 141-149.
  • Nchanji, A. C. & Plumptre, A. J. 2003. Seed germination and early seedling establishment of some elephant-dispersed species in Banyang-Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary, south-western Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 19, 229-237.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. 2003. The home range of the Sonso community of chimpanzees from the Budongo Forest, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 41, 150-156.
  • Notman, H. and Munn. J. 2003. A case of infant carrying by an adult male chimpanzee in the Budongo Forest. Pan Africa News, 10 (1): 7-9.
  • Reynolds, V, Wallis J. and Kyamanywa, R. 2003. Fragments, sugar and chimpanzees in Masindi District, W. Uganda. In: L. Marsh (ed.) Primates in Fragments: ecology and conservation. Kluwer, New York pp. 309-319.
  • Tweheyo, M. & Lye, K. A. 2003. Phenology of figs in Budongo Forest Uganda and its importance for the chimpanzee diet. African Journal of Ecology, 41, 306-316.


  • Dudley, J. P., Ginsberg, J. R., Plumptre, A. J., Hart, J. A. & Campos, L. C. 2002. Effccts of war and civil strife on wildlife and wildlife habitats. Conservation Biology, 16, 319-329.
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  • Lindsell, J.A. 2002. The first nest and egg records of Black-eared Ground Thrush Zoothera cameronensis, Budongo Forest, western Uganda. Bulletin of the British Ornithologist’s Club, 122(3), 196-201.
  • Nangendo, G., Stein, A., Gelens, M., de Gier, A. & Albricht, R. 2002. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning. Forest Ecology and Management, 164, 109-120.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E., Notman, H. & Reynolds, V. 2002. Hunting of mammalian prey by Budongo Forest chimpanzees. Folia Primatologica, 73, 281-283.
  • Newton-Fisher, N.E. 2002. Ranging patterns of male chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Uganda: range structure and individual differences. In: New Perspectives in Primate Evolution and Behaviour (Ed. C.S. Harcourt & B. R. Sherwood), p 287-308. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing
  • Quiatt, D., Reynolds, V. & Stokes, E. J. 2002. Snare injuries to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at 10 study sites in east and west Africa. African Journal of Ecology, 40, 303-305.
  • Schulz, A. & Wagner, T. 2002. Influence of forest type and tree species on canopy ants (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Oecologia, 133, 224-232.
  • Wagner, T. 2002. Revision of Afrotropical Monolepta, Part III. Mitt. Mus. Nat.kd. Berl. Dtsch. Entomol. Z. 49: 27-45.


  • Arnold, K. & Whiten, A. 2001. Post-conflict behaviour of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Behaviour, 138, 649-690.
  • Brownlow, A. R., Plumptre, A. J., Reynolds, V. & Ward, R. 2001. Sources of variation in the nesting behavior of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. American Journal of Primatology, 55, 49-55.
  • Byrne, R W & Stokes, E J. 2001. Cognitive capacities for behavioural flexibility in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): the effect of snare injury on complex manual food processing. Anim. Cogn. 4: 11-28.
  • Forget, P. M., Rankin-De Merona, J. M. & Julliot, C. 2001. The effects of forest type, harvesting and stand refinement on early seedling recruitment in a tropical rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17, 593-609.
  • Lindsell, J. A. 2001. The ranging behaviour of a tropical forest terrestrial insectivore: the Scaly-breasted Illadopsis. Ostrich, 92-97.
  • Mnason, T. and Obua, J. 2001. Feeding habits of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), red-tail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti) and blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanii) on figs in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Af. J. Ecology, 39: 133-139
  • Mwima, P.M., J. Obua and H. Oryem-Origa. 2001. Effect of logging on the natural regeneration of Khaya anthotheca in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Internat. Forestry Review, 3: 131-135.
  • Ngabo, C. K. M. & Dranzoa, C. 2001. Bird communities in gaps of Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Ostrich, 38-43.
  • Owiunji, I. 2001. Bird recovery in a recently logged forest of Budongo. Ostrich, 56-59.
  • Plumptre, A.J. 2001. The effects of habitat change due to selective logging on the fauna of forests in Africa. in: African Rain Forest Ecology and Conservation (Eds. W. Weber, L. White, A. Vedder & L. Naughton-Treves.) Ch. 27 (pp. 463-479). Yale University Press
  • Plumptre, A.J. and Grieser-Johns, A.D. (2001). Changes in Primate Communities following Logging Disturbance. In: Conserving Wildlife in Managed Tropical Forests. Eds: R.A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, and J.G. Robinson.
  • Plumptre, A.J., Dranzoa, C. and Owiunji, I. (2001). Bird Communities in Logged and Unlogged African Forests. Lessons from Uganda and Beyond. In: Conserving Wildlife in Managed Tropical Forests. Eds: R.A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, and J.G. Robinson.
  • Reynolds, V. 2001. The quest for food: its role in human evolution and migration. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 7, 369-370.
  • Sande, E., Dranzoa, C. & Wegge, R. 2001. Population density of the Nahan's Francolin Francolinus nahani in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Ostrich, 33-37.
  • Sheil, D. 2001. Long-term observations of rain forest succession, tree diversity and responses to disturbance. Plant Ecology, 155, 183-199.
  • Tweheyo, M. & Obija, J. 2001. Feeding habits of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), red-tail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidt) and blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanii) on figs in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. (vol 39, pg 133, 2001). African Journal of Ecology, 39, 327-327.
  • Tweheyo, M. & Obua, J. 2001. Feeding habits of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), red-tail monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti) and blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanii) on figs in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 39, 133-139.
  • Wagner, T. 2001. Seasonal changes in the canopy arthropod fauna in Rinorea beniensis in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Plant Ecology, 153, 169-178.
  • Wagner, T. 2001. Revision of Afrotropical Monolepta, Part II. Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 50: 49-65
  • Waller, J. C. & Reynolds, V. 2001. Limb injuries resulting from snares and traps in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Primates, 42, 135-139.
  • Whiten, A., Goodall, J., McGrew, W. C., Nishida, T., Reynolds, V., Sugiyama, Y., Tutin, C. E. G., Wrangham, R. W. & Boesch, C. 2001. Charting cultural variation in chimpanzees. Behaviour, 138, 1481-1516.


  • Babweteera, F., Plumptre, A.J., and Obua, J. 2000.  Effect of gap size and age on climber abundance and diversity in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 38, 230-237.
  • Bethell, E., Whiten A., Muhumuza G. and Kakura, J. 2000. Active plant food division and sharing by wild chimpanzees. Primate Report, 56: 67-71
  • Dale S., Mork K., Solvang R. and Plumptre A. 2000.  Edge effects on the understorey bird community in a logged forest in Uganda. Conservation Biology, 14: 265-276
  • Fawcett, K. and Muhumuza, G. 2000. Death of a wild chimpanzee community member: possible outcome of intense sexual competition. Amer. J. Primatol., 51: 243-247
  • Hill C.M. 2000. Conflict of interest between people and baboons: crop raiding in Uganda. Internat. J. Primatol., 43, 77-84
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. 2000. Male core areas: ranging in Budongo Forest chimpanzees. Pan Africa News, 7(1), 10-12
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E., Reynolds, V., and Plumptre A.J. 2000. The relationship between food supply and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) party size in the Budongo forest Reserve, Uganda. International Journal of Primatolology 21: 613-628.
  • J. Munn and G. Kalema 1999-2000. Death of a chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in a trap in Kasokwa Forest Reserve, Uganda. . African Primates, 4: 58-62.
  • Wagner T. 2000. Influence of forest type and tree species on canopy-dwelling beetles in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Biotropica, 32, 502-514.


  • Marriott, H. 1999. Micro-demography of a farming population of Western Uganda: a preliminary analysis investigating population pressure on the Budongo Forest Reserve. Social Biology and Human Affairs, 64, 1, 1-11
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. 1999. Infant killers of Budongo. Folia Primatologica 70: 167-169.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. 1999. The diet of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest. African Journal of Ecology 37: 344-354.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. 1999. Termite eating and food sharing by male chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 37: 369-371.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E., 1999. Association by male chimpanzees: a social tactic? Behaviour 136: 705-730.
  • Reynolds, V. (with others), 1999. Cultures in Chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 682-685
  • Sheil, D. 1999.  Developing tests of successional hypotheses with size-structured populations, and an assessment using long-term data from a Ugandan rain forest. Plant Ecology, 140, 117-127
  • Sheil, D. (1999) Tropical forest diversity, environmental change and s pecies augmentation: after the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Journal of Vegetation Science, 10, 851-860.
  • Stokes E.J. and Byrne R.W. 1999. Feeding skills and the effect of injuryt on chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Amer. J. Primatol., 49, 104 (Abstract)
  • Stokes E.J., Reynolds V. and Quiatt D. 1999. Snare injuries to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at 10 study sites in East and West Africa. Amer. J. Primatol., , 49, 104-5 (Abstract)
  • Wallis J. and Reynolds V. 1999. Seasonal aspects of sociosexual behaviour in two chimpanzee populations: a comparison of Gombe (Tanzania) and Budongo (Uganda). Amer. J. Primatol., , 49, 111 (Abstract)
  • Wagner, T. 1999. Arboreal chrysomelid community structure and faunal overlap between different types of forest in Central Africa. In M.L. Cox (ed.) Advances in Chrysomelidae Biology, 1, 247-270


  • Hill, C.M. 1998. Conflicting attitudes towards elephants around the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Environmental Conservation 25, 244-250
  • Lucht, W. 1998. Eine neue Eucnemide aus der Kronenregion afrikanischer Laubbaume. Mitt. Internat. Entomol. Ver. 23, 67-72
  • Owiunji, I. and Plumptre, A.J. 1998. Bird communities in logged and unlogged compartments in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Forest Ecology & Management 108, 115-126
  • Reynolds V. 1998. Demography of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii in Budongo Forest, Uganda. African Primates 3, 25-28
  • Reynolds, V., Plumptre, A.J., Greenham, J. and Harborne, J. 1998. Condensed tannins and sugars in the diet of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Oecologica 115, 331-336
  • Sheil, D. 1998. A half century of permanent plot observation in Budongo Forest, Uganda: histories, highlights and hypotheses. In: Forest Biodiversity Research, Monitoring and Modeling: Conceptual background and Old World case studies (Proceedings from the 1995 Smithsonian MAB Washington Symposium, Eds. F.Dallmeier & J.A. Comiskey), pp. 399-428, M.A.B. UNESCO, Paris.
  • Wagner T. 1998. Influence of tree species and forest type on the chrysomelid community in the canopy of an Ugandan forest. Proc. 4th Int. Symp. Chrysomelidae, Firenze. Mus reg. Sci. nat. Torino 253-269


  • Dranzoa, C., E. Sande, I. Owiunji and A. Plumptre 1997. A survey of Nahan's francolin Francolinus nahani in two tropical rainforests of Uganda. African Bird Club, 4, 90-92.
  • Hill C.M. 1997. Crop-raiding by wild vertebrates: the farmer's perspective in an agricultural community in western Uganda. Int. J. Pest Management, 43, 77-84.
  • Newton-Fisher, N. E. 1997. Ranging patterns of male Budongo chimpanzees. Annual Regional Meeting of the Linnean Society of London.
  • Paterson, J.D. 1997. Pith-ing and Bark-ing: baboons on the edge of the forest. Amer. J. Primatol., 42,140 (Abstract)
  • Paterson, J.D. 1997. Seed predation patterns in thediet of the Sonso forest baboon troop. Amer. J. Primatol., 42,140 (Abstract)
  • Plumptre, A.J. and Owiunji, I. 1997. Puvel's Illadopsis Illadopsis puveli in Budongo Forest: a new record for East Africa. Scopus 19, 114-116.
  • Plumptre A.J. and Reynolds V. 1997. Nesting behavior of chimpanzees: implications for censuses. Int. J. Primatol., 18, 475-485.
  • Sheil, D. 1997. Long-term growth and rainfall in a Ugandan moist forest: seasonal rhythms and flexing stems. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 76, 121-127.
  • Sheil, D. 1997. Questions and opportunities in long-term growth studies: Sixty years in Budongo Forest Uganda. Invited paper. IUFRO Conference on Growth Studies in Moist Tropical Forests in Africa, 11-15 November, 1996, Kumasi. Eds. E.G. Foli, J.K. Vanclay, & A.Ofosu-Asiedu. FORIG, Kumasi.
  • Stanford, A. 1997. The effect of logging on seed predation by rodents in a Ugandan tropical moist forest. Poster presented to British Ecological Society Conference, Wageningen, April 1997.
  • Tinka, J. and Reynolds V. 1997. Budongo forest chimpanzee grooms a red-tailed monkey. Pan Africa News, 4 (1), 6.


  • Johnson K. 1996. Hunting in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. SWARA, 19, 1, 24-26.
  • Johnson, K. 1996. Local attitudes towards the Budongo Forest, Western Uganda. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 4(3), 31.
  • Newton-Fisher, N.E. 1996. Association as a social tactic of male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Budongo Forest Reserve. Abstract no. 462, Proc. Int. Soc. Primatol., Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Plumptre A.J. 1996. Changes following 60 years of selective timber harvesting in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management, 89, 101-113.
  • Plumptre, A. "Two Nests of Nahan's Francolin in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda." African Bird Club, 3: 37-38.
  • Plumptre A.J. and Reynolds V. 1996. Censusing chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Int. J. Primatol., 17, 85-99.
  • Reynolds V. 1996. The Budongo Forest Project. IPPL News, November, 15-16.
  • Reynolds V., Waller J. et al. 1996. The nature, causes and consequences of injuries sustained by wild chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Abstract no. 176, Proc. Int. Soc. Primatol., Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Sheil, D. 1996. Species richness, forest dynamics and sampling: questioning cause and effect. Oikos, 76, 587-590.


  • Bakuneeta C., Johnson K., Plumptre R. and Reynolds V. 1995. Human uses of tree specis whose seeds are dispersed by chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda. Afr. J. Ecol., 33, 276-278.
  • Fairgrieve C. 1995. Infanticide and infant eating in the blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmanni) in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. Folia primatol., 64, 69-72.
  • Plumptre A.J. 1995. The importance of "seed trees" for the natural regeneration of selectively logged tropical forest. Comm. For.Rev., 74, 253-258.
  • Sheil, D. 1995. Evaluating turnover in tropical forests. Science, 268, 894.
  • Sheil, D. 1995. A critique of permanent plot methods and analysis with examples from Budongo Forest, Uganda. Forest Ecology and Management, 77, 11-34.


  • A.J. Plumptre 1994. The effects of long-term selective logging on blue duikers in the Budongo Forest Reserve. Gnusletter 13, 15-16.
  • Plumptre A.J. and Reynolds V. 1994. The effects of selective logging on the primate populations in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. J. Applied Ecol., 31, 631-641.
  • Quiatt D. 1994. Leaf sponge drinking by a Budongo Forest chimpanzee. Amer. Primatol., 33, 236.
  • Quiatt D., Rutan B. et al., 1994. Budongo Forest chimpanzees: composition of feeding groups during the rainy season, with attention to the social integration of disabled individuals.Abstract. XV Congress of Int. Primat. Soc.


  • Miller P.L. 1993. Some dragonflies of the Budongo forest, western Uganda (Odonata). Opusc. zool. flumin., 102, 1-12.
  • Miller P.L. 1993. Fast, temperature-controlled colour changes in Chlorocypha straeleni Fraser (Zygoptera: Chlorocyphidae). Notul. odomatol., 4, 1-20.
  • Reynolds V. 1993. Sustainable forestry: the case of the Budongo Forest, Uganda. SWARA, 16, 4, 13-17.
  • Bakuneeta C., Inagaki H., and Reynolds V. 1993. Identification of wild chimpanzee hair samples from feces by electron microscopy. Primates, 34, 233-235.


  • Reynolds, V. 1992. Conservation of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest Reserve. Primate Conservation, 11, 41-43
  • Reynolds, V. 1992. Chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, 1962-1992. J. Zool., Lond., 228, 695-699.
History Of Budongo

The BCFS was founded by Dr Vernon Reynolds in 1990. At that time it was called the Budongo Forest Project.

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Where is Budongo

The Budongo Forest is a moist, semi-deciduous tropical rain forest located at the top of the Albertine Rift in Uganda.

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Get in Touch

Get in touch with us by clicking on the link below.

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